After it is refined, the molten steel is tapped into refractory lined ladles. The steel is then teemed (poured) into a series of ingot molds. After the ingots solidify, the ingot molds are stripped and the ingots are placed in soaking pits for heating and to equalize the internal and external temperature. Following the soak, the ingots are hot rolled in large primary rolling mills to produce slabs, blooms, or billets depending on the final products desired. Good spreading of Bottom Pouring powder results in effective covering of liquid steel free surface, preventing re-oxidation due to steel contact with atmosphere. Moreover , homogeneous distribution of powder across liquid steel free surface combined with suitable thermal properties provides effective insulation to steel at ingot head even at the end of casting contributing to pipe reduction.
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