Tundish and Laddle covering compound are used in covering liquid metal includes a non-liquid composition that reacts at the temperature of the liquid metal to form a viscous liquid flux layer in contact with the liquid metal while maintaining a non-liquid layer above the liquid layer.
Each of the flux when applied to the surface of liquid metal contained in a tundish were found to be insulating and basic in nature, to react at the temperature of the liquid steel to form a viscous liquid flux layer in contact with the metal while maintaining a time and temperature stable easily penetrable non-liquid layer above, and were found to be non-contaminating with respect to the steel in terms of oxygen, carbon or silica, and purifying with respect to the compositions ability to remove oxide impurities, such as alumina, aluminates, silica and silicates from the liquid steel. The liquid and non-liquid layers of each of the compositions were also found to be compatible with respect to the basic refractory materials of the tundish linings and contained no or negligible levels of fluorine, and iron oxide, manganese oxide and other impurities. The flux compositions evolved a controlled quantity of carbon dioxide gas to promote material flow and spreading across the surface of the liquid metal and rapidly formed a uniform covering layer to provide insulation and a barrier to re-oxidation of the liquid metal.
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